openssl建立证书,非常详细配置ssl+apache

张映 发表于 2010-08-07

分类目录: apache/nginx

标签:, , , , ,

一,什么是ssl

SSL证书通过在客户端浏览器和Web服务器之间建立一条SSL安全通道(Secure socket layer(SSL)安全协议是由Netscape Communication公司设计开发。该安全协议主要用来提供对用户和服务器的认证;对传送的数据进行加密和隐藏;确保数据在传送中不被改变,即数据的完整性,现已成为该领域中全球化的标准。由于SSL技术已建立到所有主要的浏览器和WEB服务器程序中,因此,仅需安装服务器证书就可以激活该功能了)。即通过它可以激活SSL协议,实现数据信息在客户端和服务器之间的加密传输,可以防止数据信息的泄露。保证了双方传递信息的安全性,而且用户可以通过服务器证书验证他所访问的网站是否是真实可靠。

安全套接字层 (SSL) 技术通过加密信息和提供鉴权,保护您的网站安全。一份 SSL 证书包括一个公共密钥和一个私用密钥。公共密钥用于加密信息,私用密钥用于解译加密的信息。浏览器指向一个安全域时,SSL 同步确认服务器和客户端,并创建一种加密方式和一个唯一的会话密钥。它们可以启动一个保证消息的隐私性和完整性的安全会话。

首先要有一个主证书,然后用主证书来签发服务器证书和客户证书,服务器证书和客户证书是平级关系,SSL所使用的证书可以自己生成,也可以通过一个商业性CA(如Verisign 或 Thawte)签署证书。签发证书的问题:如果使用的是商业证书,具体的签署方法请查看相关销售商的说明;如果是知己签发的证书,可以使用openssl 自带的CA.sh脚本工具。如果不为单独的客户端签发证书,客户端证书可以不用生成,客户端与服务器端使用相同的证书。

二,安装所要的软件

openssl :wget http://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-1.0.0a.tar.gz

apache:  wget http://www.apache.org/dist/httpd/httpd-2.2.16.tar.gz

三,安装

在正式安装前,请不要直接看下面的安装,请看最后一部分,那是我安装时候所遇到的问题,这样可以使你少走不少弯路,我安装的时候,就走了不少弯路。

1,安装openssl

tar zxvf openssl-1.0.0a.tar.gz
cd openssl-1.0.0a
./config --prefix=/usr/local/openssl
make && make install

2,安装apache

如果你已经安装了apache,你又不想重新编译的话,请参考mod_ssl模块的安装,也就是添加ssl模块而已。

tar zxvf httpd-2.2.16.tar.gz
cd httpd-2.2.16
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache  --enable-ssl   --enable-rewrite  --enable-so   --with-ssl=/usr/local/openssl
make && make install

如果你是yum install  ,apt-get,pacman这样的软件管理工具进行安装的话,上面的二步可以省掉。

3,创建主证书

在/usr/local/apache/conf/下面建个目录ssl

3.1,mkdir ssl

3.2,cp /openssl的安装目录/ssl/misc/CA.sh /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl/

3.3 用CA.sh来创建证书

[root@BlackGhost ssl]# ./CA.sh -newca   //建立主证书
CA certificate filename (or enter to create)

Making CA certificate ...
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
............++++++
......++++++
writing new private key to './demoCA/private/./cakey.pem'
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verify failure
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:
-----
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:cn
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:cn
Locality Name (eg, city) []:cn
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:cn
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:cn
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:localhost
Email Address []:xtaying@gmail.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:******************
An optional company name []:
Using configuration from /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf
Enter pass phrase for ./demoCA/private/./cakey.pem:       //填的是上面的PEM密码
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
 Serial Number:
 89:11:9f:a6:ca:03:63:ab
 Validity
 Not Before: Aug  7 12:35:28 2010 GMT
 Not After : Aug  6 12:35:28 2013 GMT
 Subject:
 countryName               = cn
 stateOrProvinceName       = cn
 organizationName          = cn
 organizationalUnitName    = cn
 commonName                = localhost
 emailAddress              = xtaying@gmail.com
 X509v3 extensions:
 X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
 26:09:F3:D5:26:13:00:1F:3E:CC:86:1D:E4:EE:37:06:65:15:4E:76
 X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
 keyid:26:09:F3:D5:26:13:00:1F:3E:CC:86:1D:E4:EE:37:06:65:15:4E:76
 DirName:/C=cn/ST=cn/O=cn/OU=cn/CN=localhost/emailAddress=xtaying@gmail.com
 serial:89:11:9F:A6:CA:03:63:AB

 X509v3 Basic Constraints:
 CA:TRUE
Certificate is to be certified until Aug  6 12:35:28 2013 GMT (1095 days)

Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

安装成功的话,会在ssl目录下面产生一个文件夹demoCA

4 生成服务器私钥和服务器证书

[root@BlackGhost ssl]# openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024    //产生服务器私钥
Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
.....................++++++
.........++++++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
Enter pass phrase for server.key:
Verifying - Enter pass phrase for server.key:
[root@BlackGhost ssl]# openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr      //生成服务器证书
Enter pass phrase for server.key:
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:cn
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:cn
Locality Name (eg, city) []:cn
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:cn
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:cn
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:localhost     //要填全域名
Email Address []:xtaying@gmail.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:*****************
An optional company name []:

4.1 对产生的服务器证书进行签证

cp server.csr newseq.pem

[root@BlackGhost ssl]# ./CA.sh -sign     //为服务器证书签名
Using configuration from /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf
Enter pass phrase for ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem:
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
 Serial Number:
 89:11:9f:a6:ca:03:63:ac
 Validity
 Not Before: Aug  7 12:39:41 2010 GMT
 Not After : Aug  7 12:39:41 2011 GMT
 Subject:
 countryName               = cn
 stateOrProvinceName       = cn
 localityName              = cn
 organizationName          = cn
 organizationalUnitName    = cn
 commonName                = localhost
 emailAddress              = xtaying@gmail.com
 X509v3 extensions:
 X509v3 Basic Constraints:
 CA:FALSE
 Netscape Comment:
 OpenSSL Generated Certificate
 X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
 FE:20:56:04:8E:B6:BE:3E:3A:E1:DA:A6:4A:3A:E1:16:93:1D:3F:81
 X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
 keyid:26:09:F3:D5:26:13:00:1F:3E:CC:86:1D:E4:EE:37:06:65:15:4E:76

Certificate is to be certified until Aug  7 12:39:41 2011 GMT (365 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y

1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated
Certificate:
 Data:
 Version: 3 (0x2)
 Serial Number:
 89:11:9f:a6:ca:03:63:ac
 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
 Issuer: C=cn, ST=cn, O=cn, OU=cn, CN=localhost/emailAddress=xtaying@gmail.com
 Validity
 Not Before: Aug  7 12:39:41 2010 GMT
 Not After : Aug  7 12:39:41 2011 GMT
 Subject: C=cn, ST=cn, L=cn, O=cn, OU=cn, CN=localhost/emailAddress=xtaying@gmail.com
 Subject Public Key Info:
 Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
 Public-Key: (1024 bit)
 Modulus:
 00:ce:d5:a8:df:d1:e7:ee:92:d1:d1:78:20:a9:6d:
 0a:1b:f6:09:dd:13:29:ef:72:1d:17:54:dd:1c:8d:
 28:27:69:fe:70:3b:fa:2b:a3:45:40:80:ea:0e:5b:
 a7:bd:40:d0:cd:bc:2c:74:03:8b:f7:6c:5e:1f:09:
 5d:c6:8a:05:ea:b8:72:fc:79:8b:62:62:38:0b:42:
 28:7e:0d:fc:e7:bb:b0:87:66:6a:b2:35:92:91:b9:
 78:9c:b6:76:01:0b:2a:74:df:5f:a1:8b:31:61:90:
 93:f9:20:db:46:59:12:2e:9b:59:c0:32:4e:92:14:
 a1:7e:52:7b:cc:02:5e:e2:45
 Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
 X509v3 extensions:
 X509v3 Basic Constraints:
 CA:FALSE
 Netscape Comment:
 OpenSSL Generated Certificate
 X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
 FE:20:56:04:8E:B6:BE:3E:3A:E1:DA:A6:4A:3A:E1:16:93:1D:3F:81
 X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
 keyid:26:09:F3:D5:26:13:00:1F:3E:CC:86:1D:E4:EE:37:06:65:15:4E:76

 Signature Algorithm: sha1WithRSAEncryption
 09:a0:16:43:a2:93:11:a7:ab:f5:17:b7:36:35:84:9f:3b:37:
 32:33:3f:93:63:b0:4c:bb:d1:b4:9b:4f:37:78:62:f4:ac:ff:
 28:b0:63:71:2e:9a:7c:f4:40:2e:b1:5f:ae:49:e7:e2:6f:de:
 cf:30:cc:9a:08:26:26:24:c5:00:03:32:20:48:41:b1:29:8f:
 5d:3d:2a:78:54:0e:a8:76:07:6c:7f:23:42:75:c2:fb:83:1d:
 70:44:5e:8c:90:cf:b4:23:b7:23:5b:06:05:32:58:e3:af:1c:
 be:1d:50:7b:fd:37:66:ba:9c:ec:bb:af:ee:b6:04:f7:c5:2e:
 59:22
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
Signed certificate is in newcert.pem

cp newcert.pem server.crt

5,产生客户端证书

生成客户私钥:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out client.key 1024

生成客户证书
openssl req -new -key client.key -out client.csr

签证:
openssl ca -in client.csr -out client.crt

转换成pkcs12格式,为客户端安装所用
openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in client.crt -inkey client.key -out client.pfx

这一步根安装服务器的证书差不多,不同的是签证,最后安装的时候,client.pfx的密码要记住,在客户端安装的时候要用到的。

[root@BlackGhost ssl]# openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts   -in client.crt -inkey client.key -out client.pfx
Enter pass phrase for client.key:
Enter Export Password:
Verifying - Enter Export Password:

客户端和服务器端都可以使用服务器端证书,所以这一步不做也行。

6,集中所以证书和私私钥到一起

#cp demoCA/cacert.pem cacert.pem

同时复制一份证书,更名为ca.crt
#cp cacert.pem ca.crt

7,apache配置

vi /usr/local/apache/conf/extra/ssl.conf

ssl开启
SSLEngine on

指定服务器证书位置
SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl/server.crt

指定服务器证书key位置
SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl/server.key

证书目录
SSLCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl

根证书位置
SSLCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl/cacert.pem

要求客户拥有证书
SSLVerifyClient require
SSLVerifyDepth  1
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars

记录log
CustomLog "/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_request_log" \
          "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"

vi /usr/local/apache/conf/extra/httpd_vhosts.conf

listen 443 https
 NameVirtualHost *:443
 <VirtualHost _default_:443>

 DocumentRoot "/home/zhangy/www/metbee/trunk/src/web"
 ServerName  *:443
 ErrorLog "/home/zhangy/apache/www.metbee.com-error.log"
 CustomLog "/home/zhangy/apache/www.metbee.com-access.log" common
 Include conf/extra/ssl.conf

 </VirtualHost>

vi /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf把Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf前面的注释去掉

启动 /usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl -D SSL -k start

Server *:10000 (RSA)
Enter pass phrase:输入的是server的密钥

OK: Pass Phrase Dialog successful.

8,安装客户端证书

把ca.crt和client.pfx  copy到客户端,双击client.pfx就会进入证书的安装向导,下一步就行了,中间会让你输入密码

四,安装所遇到的问题

1,生成的密码很多,一会让输入密码,会忘得,并且主证书的密码和下面的证书的密码不能重得,会报错的,所以要搞个文本记下来。

2,升级openssl引发的问题

httpd: Syntax error on line 56 of /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf: Cannot load /usr/local/apache/modules/libphp5.so into server: libssl.so.0.9.8: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

httpd: Syntax error on line 56 of /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf: Cannot load /usr/local/apache/modules/libphp5.so into server: libcrypto.so.0.9.8: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

用ln -s来建立软链接,就可以了。不过这种方法不是万能的,比如我把libpng从1.2升到1.4,libjpeg从7.0升到8.0结果是系统差点崩掉,用软链接不管用,我把他们弄掉,从网上下的低版本重装。

3,证书的国家名称,省名要相同不然生成空证书,

The countryName field needed to be the same in the
CA certificate (cn) and the request (sh)

4,提示CommonName时,要添写全域名,会提示警告

RSA server certificate CommonName (CN) `cn' does NOT match server name!?

5,相同的证书不能生成二次,名字不一样也不行,也就是说server.cst和client.csr信息不能完相同,不然会报

failed to update database
TXT_DB error number 2

6,页面浏览时,会看到提示,你的证书是不可信的,是因为我配置的不对,还是自己建的证书就是不要信的呢?

7,当我加了SSLVerifyClient require SSLVerifyDepth 1 这二个配置时,在windows下面,要你输入证书后,就可以看到页面了,但在用firefox就是不行呢?看下面的ssl_request_log日志,192.168.18.3是用windows的IE浏览器

[09/Aug/2010:22:02:21 +0800] 127.0.0.1 TLSv1 DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA "GET /robots.txt HTTP/1.1" 208
[09/Aug/2010:22:02:21 +0800] 127.0.0.1 TLSv1 DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA "GET /robots.txt HTTP/1.1" 208
[09/Aug/2010:22:02:21 +0800] 127.0.0.1 TLSv1 DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA "GET /robots.txt HTTP/1.1" 208
[09/Aug/2010:22:02:55 +0800] 192.168.18.3 TLSv1 RC4-MD5 "GET / HTTP/1.1" 1505
[09/Aug/2010:22:02:55 +0800] 192.168.18.3 TLSv1 RC4-MD5 "GET / HTTP/1.1" 1505
[09/Aug/2010:22:02:55 +0800] 192.168.18.3 TLSv1 RC4-MD5 "GET / HTTP/1.1" 1505

遇到肯定不止这几个,有的想不起来了。关于6,7,还请高手指教。谢谢

apache ssl

apache ssl



转载请注明
作者:海底苍鹰
地址:http://blog.51yip.com/apachenginx/958.html

9 条评论

  1. Andy 留言

    cp server.csr newseq.pem
    -------------------------------------------
    应该是:
    cp server.csr newreq.pem

  2. might 留言

    hello~~求指导~~在创建主证书的3.2那一步
    cp /openssl的安装目录/ssl/misc/CA.sh /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl/
    意思是说把OPENSSL里面那个CA.sh复制到apache下的SSL目录下吗·
    但是提示说 没法找到那个文件或目录·
    是要另外装CA·还是我的OPENSSL没安装成功~?

  3. 张映 留言

    这个目录是我自己建的,博客里面有,哈哈,要看仔细一点。

  4. cc 留言

    2,升级openssl引发的问题

    httpd: Syntax error on line 56 of /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf: Cannot load /usr/local/apache/modules/libphp5.so into server: libssl.so.0.9.8: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

    httpd: Syntax error on line 56 of /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf: Cannot load /usr/local/apache/modules/libphp5.so into server: libcrypto.so.0.9.8: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

    用ln -s来建立软链接,就可以了。不过这种方法不是万能的,比如我把libpng从1.2升到1.4,libjpeg从7.0升到8.0结果是系统差点崩掉,用软链接不管用,我把他们弄掉,从网上下的低版本重装。

    我的出现的错误:
    [root@localhost ~]# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl -k start
    httpd: Syntax error on line 138 of /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf: Cannot lo

    ad modules/mod_ssl.so into server: libssl.so.1.0.0: cannot open shared object fi

    le: No such file or directory

    请问该怎么建立连接,我这个应该建立哪个目录和哪个目录的软链接?发到我的邮箱ccmjs@126.com好么?谢谢

  5. 张映 留言

    检查一下mod_ssl.so是不是存在,libssl.so.1.0.0是不是存在,如果不存在看一看更高版本的存在.如果有更高版本,就用ln -s去做一下软链接.如果没有,安装一下.

  6. jack 留言

    非常好,这个方式的证书稳定,不会出错。
    楼主说的第六个的问题是因为自己生成的证书没有第三方机构认证,你要出钱购买证书才行。比如verisign

  7. jack 留言

    关于第七个问题,我在chmod,firefox测试都OK。那两个参数都有加上去。
    这个是我的配置文件

    ServerName ******
    ProxyPass / http://localhost:8082/
    ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:8082/

    LogLevel warn
    ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log
    CustomLog /var/log/apache2/ssl_access.log combined

    #ssl开启
    SSLEngine on

    #指定服务器证书位置
    SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/server.crt

    #指定服务器证书key位置
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/server.key

    #证书目录
    SSLCACertificatePath /etc/apache2/ssl

    #根证书位置
    SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/cacert.pem

    #要求客户拥有证书
    SSLVerifyClient require
    SSLVerifyDepth 1
    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars

  8. zq 留言

    你好, 我也是遇到第7个问题了,IEok,firefox下提示
    安全连接失败

    连接115.182.35.118时发生错误。

    SSL 节点无法协商出可接受的安全参数设置。

    (错误码: ssl_error_handshake_failure_alert)

    请问楼主这个问题解决了么?
    另外还想问下,http跳到https怎么写,我后端是weblogic,前端apache跳转,请问这种方式怎么让http跳到https

  9. jaclon 留言

    最近要配置https服务,以前都没有配置过这个东西,还好楼主写的相当详细,不过当中有几个单词打错了

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