kubernetes(k8s) 集群 安装配置

张映 发表于 2020-04-28

分类目录: 云计算

标签:, ,

Kubernetes是Google开源的一个容器编排引擎,它支持自动化部署、大规模可伸缩、应用容器化管理。在生产环境中部署一个应用程序时,通常要部署该应用的多个实例以便对应用请求进行负载均衡。

在Kubernetes中,我们可以创建多个容器,每个容器里面运行一个应用实例,然后通过内置的负载均衡策略,实现对这一组应用实例的管理、发现、访问,而这些细节都不需要运维人员去进行复杂的手工配置和处理。

一,服务器介绍

10.0.40.222 bigserver2 worker
10.0.40.193 bigserver3 master

二,设置hostname

1,修改hostname

# hostname bigserver2

2,设置hosts文件

# cat <<EOF >>/etc/hosts
10.0.40.222 bigserver2
10.0.40.193 bigserver3
EOF

三,关闭防火墙,selinux,交换分区

# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl disable firewalld

# setenforce 0
# sed -i "s/^SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g" /etc/selinux/config

# swapoff -a
# sed -i 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab

kubernetes高版本,是需要关闭swap分区,不然启动不起来。本篇文章安装版本是1.18.2

四,配置内核参数,并生效

# cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf <<EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
EOF

# sysctl --system

五,配置yum源

1,base,epel换阿里源

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# mv CentOS-Base.repo CentOS-Base_bak
# mv epel.repo epel_bak 

# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/epel-7.repo

2,配置k8s源

# cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF

3,设置docker源

# wget https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo -O /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo
# yum clean all && yum makecache

六,安装Kubernetes

1,安装docker

# yum install -y docker-ce

# systemctl enable docker && systemctl start docker

# docker -v
Docker version 19.03.8, build afacb8b

2,安装kubelet kubeadm kubectl

# yum install kubelet kubeadm kubectl
# systemctl enable kubelet

在这里没有直接安装kubernetes,自带的k8s是1.5版的,太过老旧。通过这种方式安装的是稳定最新版。

在这里要注意,systemctl enable kubelet,不然会面操作时会报warning

[WARNING Service-Kubelet]: kubelet service is not enabled, please run 'systemctl enable kubelet.service'

Kubelet负责与其他节点集群通信,并进行本节点Pod和容器生命周期的管理。Kubeadm是Kubernetes的自动化部署工具,降低了部署难度,提高效率。Kubectl是Kubernetes集群管理工具。

备注:到此步,以上要在所有节点上配置。

七,master(10.0.40.193)节点,配置kubernetes

1,初始化kubernetes集群

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=1.18.2 \
> --apiserver-advertise-address=10.0.40.193 \
> --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers \
> --service-cidr=10.1.0.0/16 \
> --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \
> --ignore-preflight-errors=Swap
W0427 18:38:50.464858 20657 configset.go:202] WARNING: kubeadm cannot validate component configs for API groups [kubelet.config.k8s.io kubeproxy.config.k8s.io]
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.18.2
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
 [WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [bigserver3 kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.1.0.1 10.0.40.193]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [bigserver3 localhost] and IPs [10.0.40.193 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [bigserver3 localhost] and IPs [10.0.40.193 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"
W0427 18:39:40.388099 20657 manifests.go:225] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"
W0427 18:39:40.390080 20657 manifests.go:225] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 34.525978 seconds
[upload-config] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.18" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --upload-certs
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node bigserver3 as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node bigserver3 as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: 8ylj4t.8kzvk4ro7hgdehwk
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to get nodes
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstrap-token] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[kubelet-finalize] Updating "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf" to point to a rotatable kubelet client certificate and key
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

 mkdir -p $HOME/.kube   //注意这段要在master节点执行的
 sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
 sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:

https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:
//在worker节点执行以下内容
kubeadm join 10.0.40.193:6443 --token 8ylj4t.8kzvk4ro7hgdehwk \
 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:46f6cf1d84d0eadb4f6e7f05b908e5572025886d9f134db27f92b98e1c3dd3ed
--image-repository:指定仓库地址
--ignore-preflight-errors:将错误显示为警告的检查列表进行忽略
--pod-network-cidr:指定pod网络的IP地址范围。如果设置,控制平面将为每个节点自动分配CIDRs。
--service-cidr:为service VIPs使用不同的IP地址。(默认“10.96.0.0/12”)

2,配置kubectl

# echo $HOME
/root
# mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
# cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config

3,部署flannel网络

# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
# kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml
podsecuritypolicy.policy/psp.flannel.unprivileged created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel configured
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel unchanged
serviceaccount/flannel unchanged
configmap/kube-flannel-cfg configured
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-amd64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-s390x created

注意:如果有多个网卡,要指定网卡,防止DNS无法解释

args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
- --iface=eth0    #指定网卡

八,worker节点加入,kubernetes集群

[root@bigserver2 yum.repos.d]# kubeadm join 10.0.40.193:6443 --token y4d0ws.w8lxmohfc1o0yq6b \
> --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:46f6cf1d84d0eadb4f6e7f05b908e5572025886d9f134db27f92b98e1c3dd3ed --ignore-preflight-errors=all
W0428 15:07:33.725621 17900 join.go:346] [preflight] WARNING: JoinControlPane.controlPlane settings will be ignored when control-plane flag is not set.
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
 [WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Reading configuration from the cluster...
[preflight] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml'
[kubelet-start] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.18" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[kubelet-start] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap...

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.

如果报以下错误:

[ERROR DirAvailable--etc-kubernetes-manifests]: /etc/kubernetes/manifests is not empty
[ERROR FileAvailable--etc-kubernetes-kubelet.conf]: /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf already exists
[ERROR Port-10250]: Port 10250 is in use
[ERROR FileAvailable--etc-kubernetes-pki-ca.crt]: /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt already exists

解决办法:加上--ignore-preflight-errors=all

九,在master(10.0.40.193)节点,检查集群状态

1,检查集群状态

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
bigserver2   Ready    <none>   4h44m   v1.18.2
bigserver3   Ready    master   24h     v1.18.2

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok
controller-manager   Healthy   ok
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}

如果报以下错误:

Unable to connect to the server: x509: certificate signed by unknown authority (possibly because of "crypto/rsa: verification error" while trying to verify candidate authority certificate "kubernetes")

解决办法:rm -rf $HOME/.kube,删除目录重新copy

2,创建Pod以验证集群

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl get pod,svc
NAME                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
service/kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.1.0.1     <none>       443/TCP   21h

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx
deployment.apps/nginx created

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=80 --type=NodePort
service/nginx exposed

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl get pod,svc
NAME                        READY   STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
pod/nginx-f89759699-545w5   0/1     ContainerCreating   0          12s

NAME                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
service/kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.1.0.1      <none>       443/TCP        21h
service/nginx        NodePort    10.1.54.199   <none>       80:30412/TCP   5s

十,安装dashboard,web端的kubernetes管理工具

1,项目地址

https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard

2,安装kubernetes-dashboard

# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml

# vim ecommended.yaml
 ports:
 - port: 443
 targetPort: 8443
 nodePort: 30001 //新增,范围30000-32767
 type: NodePort //新增
 selector:

The Service "kubernetes-dashboard" is invalid: spec.ports[0].nodePort: Invalid value: 28443: provided port is not in the valid range. The range of valid ports is 30000-32767,这个问题就是因为端口设置的不对

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl create -f recommended.yaml
namespace/kubernetes-dashboard created
serviceaccount/kubernetes-dashboard created
service/kubernetes-dashboard created
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-certs created
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-csrf created
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder created
configmap/kubernetes-dashboard-settings created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
deployment.apps/kubernetes-dashboard created
service/dashboard-metrics-scraper created
deployment.apps/dashboard-metrics-scraper created

3,检查kubernetes-dashboard是否成功

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system -o wide
NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP            NODE         NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
coredns-7ff77c879f-bxgtr             1/1     Running   0          22h     10.244.0.2    bigserver3   <none>           <none>
coredns-7ff77c879f-t4vm9             1/1     Running   0          22h     10.244.0.3    bigserver3   <none>           <none>
etcd-bigserver3                      1/1     Running   2          22h     10.0.40.193   bigserver3   <none>           <none>
kube-apiserver-bigserver3            1/1     Running   2          22h     10.0.40.193   bigserver3   <none>           <none>
kube-controller-manager-bigserver3   1/1     Running   2          22h     10.0.40.193   bigserver3   <none>           <none>
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-772tm          1/1     Running   0          155m    10.0.40.222   bigserver2   <none>           <none>
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-d75d5          1/1     Running   0          3h40m   10.0.40.193   bigserver3   <none>           <none>
kube-proxy-8mpj4                     1/1     Running   0          155m    10.0.40.222   bigserver2   <none>           <none>
kube-proxy-dmsq4                     1/1     Running   1          22h     10.0.40.193   bigserver3   <none>           <none>
kube-scheduler-bigserver3            1/1     Running   1          22h     10.0.40.193   bigserver3   <none>           <none>

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl get services -n kube-system
NAME       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                  AGE
kube-dns   ClusterIP   10.1.0.10    <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP,9153/TCP   22h

[root@bigserver3 ~]# netstat -ntlp|grep 30001
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:30001           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      6096/kube-proxy

4,生成Dashboard的认证令牌

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl create serviceaccount  dashboard-admin -n kube-system
serviceaccount/dashboard-admin created

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding  dashboard-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/dashboard-admin created

[root@bigserver3 ~]# kubectl describe secrets -n kube-system $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | awk '/dashboard-admin/{print $1}')
Name:         dashboard-admin-token-whgv9
Namespace:    kube-system
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  kubernetes.io/service-account.name: dashboard-admin
              kubernetes.io/service-account.uid: dfbb4498-b69f-41f9-84fa-3480b1a4c437

Type:  kubernetes.io/service-account-token

Data
====
token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IkUtNDZpS3lLbGk5YlhpOFhldTZvcUktOUgxVFk2TkMzN2wwTGlzdlN1aWMifQ.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.oguhHisptOdzxVIfJVY6sRUzFgok-NVy2Ob4tvAy3_h9tIwa-5hzshSwXduDTWtgQ8KO5ry5EphAaa9t3BBdy_KqPO2_ysdD-Hrlfa0Fi-8jep1mk34Ol0kjw6EzmAXT6I09-hLj0yjHAM3ub3cnV2Rc-hHcEZKDs3lVCRLiPeFggMhTOQsPXw3mElVuX3PxghwKRw4c2Kw5Vvg5ALRQ6lcrYY2Kex4hNFo6y1ewszyMyDPXIFIDwupjYbuAmEKb2C7j5QHargSBJ88q-iTcwtAAZs1_gOpXYOJVNVfBsbHAK4O8FeKZnvJhgL4aufNRw12_ffw1Ot4VqR8v43pWow
ca.crt:     1025 bytes
namespace:  11 bytes

5,登录Dashboard。https://10.0.40.193:30001,用firefox访问

kubernetes chrome打不开

kubernetes chrome打不开

kubernetes 填上生成的token

kubernetes 填上生成的token

kubernetes dashboard首页

kubernetes dashboard首页

kubernetes 节点页

kubernetes 节点页



转载请注明
作者:海底苍鹰
地址:http://blog.51yip.com/cloud/2399.html

留下评论

留下评论
  • (必需)
  • (必需) (will not be published)
  • (必需)   1X2=?