linux 挂载硬盘扩容的2种方法

张映 发表于 2015-12-30

分类目录: linux

标签:, , ,

硬盘快满了,加硬盘扩容,不管是独立的服务器,还是云空间新买的硬盘,扩容方式一样。下面以阿里VPS为例,详细说一下,挂载硬盘扩容的2种方法。

阿里VPS,个人觉得有以下二个方面需要改进

1,默认不是lvm,所以系统盘/dev/xvda1是不能扩容的,所以如果有大数据的东西,一开始就要考虑到扩容的问题。数据量越大,操作风险越大。

2,不能实现无缝扩容,也就是说,在后台扩容一下,不用登录到VPS,进行调整。非专业人士,扩容困难

一,不采用lvm,直接将硬盘挂载到目录

1,查看硬盘分区情况

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df
Filesystem     1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvda1      20641404 14778400   4814480  76% /
tmpfs             509300        0    509300   0% /dev/shm

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/xvda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00078f9c

    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvda1   *           1        2611    20970496   83  Linux     //id是83,非lvm

Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes         //新买的硬盘
255 heads, 56 sectors/track, 3230 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 14280 * 512 = 7311360 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

2,硬盘分区并查看分区情况

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk -S 56 /dev/xvdb      //分区

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): n   //输入n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p  //主分区
Partition number (1-4): 1   //分区号1
First cylinder (1-3230, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-3230, default 3230):
Using default value 3230

Command (m for help): wq   //保存并退出
The partition table has been altered!

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk -l     

Disk /dev/xvda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00078f9c

    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvda1   *           1        2611    20970496   83  Linux

Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes
255 heads, 56 sectors/track, 3230 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 14280 * 512 = 7311360 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvdb1               1        3230    23062172   83  Linux    //分区后

3,格式化新分区xvdb1

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1   //格式化分区
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1441792 inodes, 5765543 blocks
288277 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
176 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000

Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 35 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

4,创建目录,并挂载分区

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mkdir /mnt/fastdfs    //挂载目录
[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# echo "/dev/xvdb1    /mnt/fastdfs    ext4    defaults    0 0" >> /etc/fstab   //重启会自动挂载
[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mount -a    //挂载所有目录

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df
Filesystem     1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvda1      20641404 14778404   4814476  76% /
tmpfs             509300        0    509300   0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvdb1      22694396   176064  21365516   1% /mnt/fastdfs    //新的分区已挂载

到这儿,就把一块独立的硬盘加到系统当中了。这种扩容的方式操作简单,但是扩展性不强,不推荐这种扩容方式。

二,采用lvm的方式,进行硬盘扩容(推荐)

1,取消前面测试的挂载,并删除分区

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# umount -a         //取消挂载

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb   //分区

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): d       //删除分区
Selected partition 1

Command (m for help): wq     //保存
The partition table has been altered!

2,安装lvm

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ nginx]# uname -a   //查看内核信息
Linux iZ94zz3wqciZ 2.6.32-431.23.3.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Thu Jul 31 17:20:51 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# yum install lvm2 device-mapper   //安装 LVM2,2.6.9以后版本不用装device-mapper

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ nginx]# lsmod | grep dm_mod    //是否加载了dm_mod
dm_mod                 84337  5 dm_mirror,dm_log

lvm的安装,首先加载device-mapper模块,从linux内核2.6.9开始,device-mapper模块就已经包含在内,所以你只需加载即可。加载mapper模块:modprobe dm_mod。

3,创建lvm分区

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb   //分区

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): l

 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris
 1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx
 5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data
 6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility
 8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt
 9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O
 b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-2871, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2871, default 2871):
Using default value 2871

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2871 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvdb1               1        2871    23061276   83  Linux      //不是lvm分区格式

Command (m for help): t    //转换
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e     //换成8e
Changed system type of partition 1 to 8e (Linux LVM)

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2871 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvdb1               1        2871    23061276   8e  Linux LVM     //现在lvm分区格式了

Command (m for help): wq
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

4,创建逻辑卷组,以及逻辑卷等

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# pvcreate /dev/xvdb1     //创建物理卷
  Physical volume "/dev/xvdb1" successfully created

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgcreate myfiles /dev/xvdb1    //创建逻辑卷组
  Volume group "myfiles" successfully created

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgchange -ay myfiles   //激活逻辑卷组
  0 logical volume(s) in volume group "myfiles" now active

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgdisplay myfiles | grep "Total PE"    //查看该卷组所有的PE
  Total PE              5629

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# lvcreate -l 5629 -n fastdfs myfiles    //创建逻辑卷
  Logical volume "fastdfs" created.

5,格式化逻辑卷

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/myfiles/fastdfs    //格式化逻辑卷
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1441792 inodes, 5764096 blocks
288204 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
176 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000

Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 39 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

6,设置自动挂载,并查看分区

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# echo '/dev/myfiles/fastdfs     /mnt/fastdfs            ext4    defaults        0 0' >> /etc/fstab   //自动挂载
[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mount -a     //手动挂载
[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df
Filesystem           1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvda1            20641404 14778608   4814272  76% /
tmpfs                   509300        0    509300   0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/myfiles-fastdfs
                      22694396   176064  21365516   1% /mnt/fastdfs     //lvm逻辑卷已挂载

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# reboot     //操作完最好重启一下

7,再扩容一块硬盘到已有逻辑卷

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdc   //详细过程同上,就不详细说明了

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# reboot

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# pvcreate /dev/xvdc1     //创建物理卷
  Physical volume "/dev/xvdc1" successfully created

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgextend myfiles /dev/xvdc1    //将新硬盘加入卷组
  Volume group "myfiles" successfully extended

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgdisplay myfiles | grep "Total PE"  //查看所有PE
  Total PE              6907

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# lvresize -l 6907 /dev/myfiles/fastdfs  //重新规定大小
  Size of logical volume myfiles/fastdfs changed from 21.99 GiB (5629 extents) to 26.98 GiB (6907 extents).
  Logical volume fastdfs successfully resized

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# resize2fs /dev/myfiles/fastdfs    //重新规定大小
resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem at /dev/myfiles/fastdfs is mounted on /mnt/fastdfs; on-line resizing required
old desc_blocks = 2, new_desc_blocks = 2
Performing an on-line resize of /dev/myfiles/fastdfs to 7072768 (4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/myfiles/fastdfs is now 7072768 blocks long.

[root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvda1             20G   15G  4.6G  76% /
tmpfs                 498M     0  498M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/myfiles-fastdfs
                       27G  172M   26G   1% /mnt/fastdfs       //新的5G硬盘加上去了

如果是频繁的扩容硬盘的话,LVM是首选,扩展真的很方便。



转载请注明
作者:海底苍鹰
地址:http://blog.51yip.com/linux/1778.html

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